Friday, July 18, 2008

Instructional System Design (ISD): Using the ADDIE Model

Instructional design is the systematic approach to the
Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of learning materials and activities.
Instructional design aims for a learner-centered rather than the traditional teacher-centered approach to
instruction, so that effective learning can take place. This means that every component oref the instruction
is governed by the learning outcomes, which have been determined after a thorough analysis of the
learners’ needs.
These phases sometimes overlap and can be interrelated; however, they provide a dynamic, flexible
guideline for developing effective and efficient instruction.

Instructional System Design (ISD): Using the ADDIE Model
The Analyze phase is the foundation for all other phases of instructional design. During this phase, you
must define the problem, identify the source of the problem and determine possible solutions.
The phase may include specific research techniques such as needs analysis, job analysis and task analysis.
The outputs of this phase often include the instructional goals, and a list of tasks to be instructed. These
outputs will be the inputs for the Design phase.
The Design phase involves using the outputs from the Analyze phase to plan a strategy for developing the
instruction. During this phase, you must outline how to reach the instructional goals determined during
the Analyze phase and expand the instructional foundation.
Some of the elements of the Design Phase may include writing a target population description, conducting
a learning analysis, writing objectives and test items, selecting a delivery system, and sequencing the
instruction. The outputs of the Design phase will be the inputs for the Develop phase.
The Develop phase builds on both the Analyze and Design phases. The purpose of this phase is to
generate the lesson plans and lesson materials. During this phase you will develop the instruction, all
media that will be used in the instruction, and any supporting documentation. This may include hardware
(e.g., simulation equipment) and software (e.g., computer-based instruction).
The Implementation phase refers to the actual delivery of the instruction, whether it's classroom-based,
lab-based, or computer-based. The purpose of this phase is the effective and efficient delivery of
instruction. This phase must promote the students' understanding of material, support the students'
mastery of objectives, and ensure the students' transfer of knowledge from the instructional setting to the
This phase measures the effectiveness and efficiency of the instruction. Evaluation should actually occur
throughout the entire instructional design process - within phases, between phases, and after
implementation. Evaluation may be Formative or Summative.
Formative Evaluation is ongoing during and between phases. The purpose of this type of evaluation is
to improve the instruction before the final version is implemented.
Summative Evaluation usually occurs after the final version of instruction is implemented. This type
of evaluation assesses the overall effectiveness of the instruction. Data from the Summative Evaluation is
often used to make a decision about the instruction (such as whether to purchase an instructional package
or continue/discontinue instruction).

Download here to get complete article.


Popular Posts